Private Scholarship Programs
Philanthropic organizations have become increasingly interested in investing in scholarship programs to expand postsecondary educational opportunities for disadvantaged students. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, for example, established the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) and Washington State Achievers (WSA) programs to help qualified students go to college and succeed in postsecondary education and beyond. A series of studies have been done to evaluate the impacts of GMS and WSA programs on student educational outcomes.
Hu, S. (2011). Scholarship awards, student engagement, and leadership capacity of college graduates. Journal of Higher Education, 82, 511-534.
St. John, E. P., Hu, S., & Fisher, A. F. (2011). Breaking through the access barrier: Academic capital formation informing policy in higher education. New York: Routledge.
Hu, S. (2010). Scholarship awards, college choice, and student engagement in college activities. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 151-162.
Hu, S., & Ma, Y. (2010). Mentoring and student persistence in college: A study of the Washington State Achievers program. Innovative Higher Education, 35, 329-341.
Williams, K., Hu, S., & St. John, E. P. (2008). The influence of public funding strategies on enrollment of low-income, high-achieving African American students. In E. P. St. John (Ed.), Resources, assets, and strengths among successful diverse students: Understanding the contributions of the Gates Millennium Scholars program (pp. 179-200). New York: AMS Press.
St. John, E. P., & Hu, S. (2007). School reform, scholarship guarantees, and college enrollment: A study of the Washington State Achievers program. In E. P. St. John (Ed.), Confronting educational inequality: Reframing, building understanding, and making change. Reading on equal education (pp. 351-385). New York: AMS Press.
St. John, E. P., & Hu, S. (2006). The impact of guarantees on financial aid on college enrollment: An evaluation of the Washington State Achievers program. In E. P. St. John (Ed.), Public policy and educational opportunity: School reforms, postsecondary encouragement, and state policies on postsecondary education. Reading on equal education (pp. 213-257). New York: AMS Press.